Eclectic



Eclectic medicine

Eclectic medicine was a branch of American medicine which made use of botanical remedies along with other substances and physical therapy practices, popular in the latter half of the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries.

The term was coined by Constantine Samuel Rafinesque (1784–1841), a botanist and Transylvania University professor who had studied Native American use of medicinal plants, wrote and lectured extensively on herbal medicine, and advised patients and sold remedies by mail. [1] Rafinesque used the word eclectic to refer to those physicians who employed whatever was found to be beneficial to their patients (eclectic being derived from the Greek word eklego, meaning «to choose from»).

Eclectic medicine appeared as an extension of early American herbal medicine traditions such as «Thomsonian medicine» in the early 19th century, and included Native American medicine. Standard medical practices at the time made extensive use of purges with calomel and other mercury-based remedies, as well as extensive bloodletting. Eclectic medicine was a direct reaction to those barbaric practices as well as a desire to restrict Thomsonian medicine innovations to medical «professionals.»

Alexander Holmes Baldridge (1795–1874) suggested that because of its American roots the tradition of Eclectic Medicine should be called the American School of Medicine. It bears resemblance to Physiomedicalism, which is practiced in the United Kingdom.

In 1827, a physician named Wooster Beach founded the United States Infirmary on Eldridge Street in New York. Ten years later, in 1837, he founded the New York Medical Academy, which later became the Reformed Medical College of New York, the parent school of «Reformed Medicine.» [2] [3]

The Eclectic Medical Institute in Worthington, Ohio graduated its first class in 1833. After the notorious «Resurrection Riot» in 1839, the school was evicted from Worthington and settled in Cincinnati during the winter of 1842–43. The Cincinnati school, incorporated as the Eclectic Medical Institute (EMI), continued until the last class graduation in 1939 more than a century later. Over the decades, other Ohio medical schools had been merged into that institution. The American School of Medicine (Eclectic) in Cincinnati operated from 1839 to 1857, when it merged with the Eclectic Medical Institute. [4] [5]

Eclectic medicine expanded during the 1840s as part of a large, populist anti-regular medical movement in North America. It used many principles of Samuel Thomson’s family herbal medication but chose to train doctors in physiology and more conventional principles, along with botanical medicine. The American School of Medicine (Eclectic) trained physicians in a dozen or so privately funded medical schools, principally located in the midwestern United States. [6] By the 1850s, several «regular» American medical tradespersons especially from the New York Academy of Medicine, had begun using herbal salves and other preparations.

The movement peaked in the 1880s and 1890s. The schools were not approved by the Flexner Report (1910), which was commissioned by a council within the American Medical Association. The report criticised Eclectic medical schools on the grounds that they had poor laboratory facilities and inadequate opportunities for clinical education in hospitals [7] In 1934, J. C. Hubbard, M.D., the president of the Eclectic Medical Association said:

We must choose between being absorbed by the dominant section, our professional activities dictated and controlled, our policies subject to the approval of an unfriendly, prejudiced, self-constituted authority, and soon lose our identity as the Eclectic Section of American Medicine, or adapt ourselves to the general social change and retain the old Eclectic values of individual freedom of thought and action, independence in practice and the right to use that which has stood the test of experience in our service to mankind. [8]

The last Eclectic Medical school closed in Cincinnati in 1939. The Lloyd Library and Museum still maintains the greatest collection of books, papers and publications of the Eclectic physicians, including libraries from the Eclectic medical schools. [9]

The contemporary herbalist Michael Moore recounts:

In 1990 I visited the Lloyd Library in Cincinnati, Ohio, where, in the basement, I found the accumulated libraries of ALL the Eclectic medical schools, shipped off to the Eclectic Medical College (the «Mother School») as, one by one, they died. Finally, even the E.M.C. died (1939) and there they all were, holding on by the slimmest thread, the writings of a discipline of medicine that survived for a century, was famous (or infamous) for its vast plant ‘materia medica,’ treated the patient and NOT the pathology, a sophisticated model of vitalist healing. [6]

Major Eclectic practitioners include John Uri Lloyd, John Milton Scudder, Harvey Wickes Felter, John King, Andrew Jackson Howe, Finley Ellingwood, Frederick J. Locke, and William N. Mundy. [10] [11] Harvey Wickes Felter’s Eclectic Materia Medica is one of several important Eclectic medical publications dating from the 1920s. It represented the last attempt to stem the tide of «standard practice medicine». This was the antithesis of the model of the rural primary care vitalist physician who was the basis for Eclectic practice. [6]

The Eclectic Cooking Studio

(843) 821-7733

125 Central Avenue

Historic Downtown Summerville

Want to learn some basic entertaining tips? Or how to make fresh pasta? Or maybe even wanting to make your own sausage? What’s the best knife to buy for you? All of these topics (plus MANY more) are discussed in various classes that are held in ECS (Eclectic Cooking Studio).

So get the girls together for ‘Girls Night Out’ or for a Bachelorette Party and schedule a studio class. Bring a bottle of wine and have a blast! Or ask for a schedule of classes offered.

Need Some Catering?

(843) 821-7733

125 Central Avenue

Historic Downtown Summerville

Eclectic Chef provides catering services, event planning, drop offs, and in-home personal chef service to create the ultimate culinary experience for you. Whether it’s a private party, corporate luncheon, dinner party, wedding reception, anniversary , holiday or birthday party …. no matter the function … Eclectic Chef provides the ultimate event just for you! … Summerville’s Favorite Caterer since 2009

Gourmet-to-Go!

(843) 821-7733

125 Central Avenue

Historic Downtown Summerville

Having a Dinner Party and need some help? Or need to take a friend or beloved one dinner to help them out? Or an experiencing the unexpected passing of a loved one? Call us at Eclectic Chef and let us help you! For Dinner Parties, we can come into your home and prepare dinner on-site, do a drop off, or you can pick up.

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RUN BIG WITH US

At Eclectic Edge Events, we know about the amazing connection that can occur when people run and walk together. Let us guide you in producing that amazing journey for others.

Services

  • Finish Line Structures, Banners & Chute
  • Professional Race Announcing
  • Timing, Scoring & Results
  • Customized Results Tickets
  • Comprehensive Race Calendar
  • Online Registration Set Up
  • Logistical Advisement
  • Complete Event Production

TIMING, RESULTS, ANNOUNCING

Our team of timers and announcers give your event an official race feel, guiding racers to the start line, announcing important information and welcoming them into the finish line.

RUN BIG!

FEATURED EVENTS

THE ECLECTIC EDGE STORY
It all started back in 1988, when William Wyckoff, owner of Eclectic Edge Events, LLC, began hosting trail running events as fund-raisers for the high school cross country program that he coached in the mountains of Colorado — 40 miles west of Denver. The very first trail running event was called the Fastrek Forest Challenge, a 9 mile race that ascended 1,300 feet from a starting elevation of 8,500 feet — the race was so burly that you had to be a «monster» to run it. In fact, a 1/2 mile section of the course near the top was so steep that it became known as «The Wall» and even the most seasoned trail runners struggled to negotiate it without walking.

The name «Fastrek» was the title of the running club that William founded, and it included many of the high school athletes he was coaching. When it was time to create the design for the race shirt of that first event, one of the athletes on William’s team (known as «Sparky») said, «Hey Coach, I’ve got an idea, let me put something together.» The design featured a running bigfoot — again, one had to be a monster to run the race!

The running bigfoot icon gained popularity, but it would be a few years before the company name of Eclectic Edge Racing would be developed from the original «Fastrek.» In 1996, William began working as a disc jockey and producing a local radio program — and, the station needed a name for his program. Well, William played a variety of music, focused on divergent themes in every show, and was always, «On The Edge.» The radio show became known as «William Wyckoff on the Eclectic Edge,» and then the titles, Eclectic Edge Events and Eclectic Edge Racing for William’s business ventures closely followed suit.

Today, Eclectic Edge Racing is an industry leader in the quality of service in race management, timing and announcing. We’re proud to celebrate our history and encourage everyone to, «Run Big», as we keep striving to be on the «Eclectic Edge.» On a historical trivia note, our runner-artist, «Sparky», led the team to the first ever and first of four straight high school cross country state championships in Colorado and is now a graphic designer in the Bay Area — and still, running big!

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French Eclectic Architecture

The charm of the French Eclectic style is indisputable, especially among the simplest examples of this type.

America has always had a special relationship with France so it was inevitable that French architectural styles would find their way across the Atlantic and be incorporated into the American landscape. Previous French influences included the Second Empire style of the 19th century with its characteristic mansard roofs and the relatively rare Chateauesque (c. 1880–1910) with its incredibly ornate detailing.

The French Eclectic style embraces the various regional styles found across France as well as American adaptations and interpretations in a more vernacular way which made it suitable for single family homes. Earlier versions (1900–1915) were more likely influenced by the elaborate Beaux Arts and Chateauesque styles, whereas later houses were influenced by more modest French homes that were familiar to returning WWI soldiers. Also, photographic studies became available to American architects during the 1920s that provided inspirational models.

The most telling feature of French Eclectic is its roof. It is steeply pitched, hipped, and the eaves are often flared. This style may be either symmetrical and quite formal, or asymmetrical and somewhat rambling as are many French farmhouses. There are many similarities to the Tudor style that occurred at the same time, such as half-timbering and materials used. This style is most easily distinguished from the Tudor by the absence of a front-facing cross gable.

Rounded towers with conical roofs were frequently built, especially in asymmetrical designs. Dormers were common; gabled, hipped, and arched dormers are seen «through-the-cornice» which creates a distinctive facade. Roof dormers are common as well. Depending on the architect’s interpretation, front entrances may be accessed through half-rounded, covered porches with much detail, or simple undecorated stoops.

This style is relatively unusual in all parts of the US. Most French Eclectic homes were constructed between 1920–1935.

General Characteristics

The following features are found in various combinations:

  • Tall, steeply pitched, hipped roof
  • Eaves commonly flared upward
  • Masonry wall cladding of stone or brick; often stuccoed
  • Rounded Norman towers are common
  • Massive chimneys
  • Range of architectural detail including quoins, pediments, pilasters
  • Windows may be casement or double hung and French doors are used

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