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Grover Cleveland, in full Stephen Grover Cleveland, (born March 18, 1837, Caldwell, New Jersey, U.S.—died June 24, 1908, Princeton, New Jersey), 22nd and 24th president of the United States (1885–89 and 1893–97) and the only president ever to serve two discontinuous terms. Cleveland distinguished himself as one of the few truly honest and principled politicians of the Gilded Age. His view of the president’s function as primarily that of blocking legislative excesses made him quite popular during his first term, but that view cost him public support during his second term when he steadfastly denied a positive role for government in dealing with the worst economic collapse the nation had yet faced. (For a discussion of the history and nature of the presidency, see presidency of the United States of America.)
Early life and career
Cleveland was the son of Richard Falley Cleveland, an itinerant Presbyterian minister, and Ann Neal. The death of Grover Cleveland’s father in 1853 forced him to abandon school in order to support his mother and sisters. After clerking in a law firm in Buffalo, New York, he was admitted to the bar in 1859 and soon entered politics as a member of the Democratic Party. During the Civil War he was drafted but hired a substitute so that he could care for his mother—an altogether legal procedure but one that would make him vulnerable to political attack in the future. In 1863 he became assistant district attorney of Erie county, New York, and in 1870–73 he served as county sheriff. With this slight political background and only modest success as a lawyer, the apparently unambitious Buffalo attorney launched one of the most meteoric rises in American politics.
In 1881, eight years after stepping down as sheriff, Cleveland was nominated for mayor by Buffalo Democrats who remembered his honest and efficient service in that office. He won the election easily. As Buffalo’s chief executive, he became known as the “veto mayor” for his rejection of spending measures he considered to be wasteful and corrupt. In 1882, without the support of the Tammany Hall Democratic machine in New York City, Cleveland received his party’s nomination for governor, and he went on to crush his Republican opponent by more than 200,000 votes.
As governor of New York, Cleveland again used the veto frequently, even to turn down measures that enjoyed wide public support. His devotion to principle and his unstinting opposition to Tammany Hall soon earned him a national reputation—particularly among Americans disgusted with the frequent scandals of Gilded Age politics.
In 1884 the Democrats sought a presidential candidate who would contrast sharply with Republican nominee James G. Blaine, a longtime Washington insider whose reputation for dishonesty and financial impropriety prompted the Republican Mugwump faction to bolt their party. Cleveland’s image was the opposite of Blaine’s, and he seemed likely to draw Mugwump votes to the Democratic ticket. As a result, Cleveland won the Democratic nomination with ease.
During the campaign, Cleveland’s image as the clean alternative to the supposedly sullied Blaine suffered serious damage when Republicans charged that the Democratic candidate had fathered a child out of wedlock some 10 years earlier. As Republicans joyously chortled, “Ma, ma, where’s my pa?,” Cleveland remained undaunted, and he instructed Democratic leaders to “tell the truth.” The truth, as Cleveland admitted, was that he had had an affair with the child’s mother, Maria Halpin, and had agreed to provide financial support when she named him as the father, though he was uncertain whether the child was really his. Meanwhile, Democrats, trying to contrast Cleveland’s reputation with Blaine’s, chanted “Blaine Blaine, James G. Blaine, the continental liar from the state of Maine!” Late in the campaign, Blaine experienced an embarrassment of his own, when a supporter at a rally in New York City described the Democrats as the party of “rum, Romanism, and rebellion”—a swipe at the city’s Irish Catholics, many of whom Blaine hoped to lure into his camp. Although Blaine was present when the fateful words were spoken, he did nothing to dissociate himself from the remark. The general election was determined by electoral votes from New York state, which Blaine lost to Cleveland by fewer than 1,200 votes.
As president, Cleveland continued to act in the same negative capacity that had marked his tenures as mayor and governor. He nullified fraudulent grants to some 80 million acres (30 million hectares) of Western public lands and vetoed hundreds of pension bills that would have sent federal funds to undeserving Civil War veterans. Once again, Cleveland’s rejection of wasteful and corrupt measures endeared the president to citizens who admired his honesty and courage. He also received credit for two of the more significant measures enacted by the federal government in the 1880s: the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), which established the Interstate Commerce Commission, the first regulatory agency in the United States, and the Dawes General Allotment Act (1887), which redistributed Native American reservation land to individual tribe members.
In 1886 Cleveland, a lifelong bachelor, married Frances Folsom, the daughter of his former law partner. Frances Cleveland, 27 years younger than her husband, proved to be a very popular first lady. To all appearances the marriage was a happy one, though during the 1888 presidential campaign she was forced to publicly refute Republican-spread rumours that Cleveland had beaten her during drunken rages.
Cleveland ran for reelection in 1888. The major issue of the presidential campaign was the protective tariff. Cleveland opposed the high tariff, calling it unnecessary taxation imposed upon American consumers, while Republican candidate Benjamin Harrison defended protectionism. On election day, Cleveland won about 100,000 more popular votes than Harrison, evidence of the esteem in which the president was held and to the widespread desire for a lower tariff. Yet Harrison won the election by capturing a majority of votes in the electoral college (233 to 168), largely as a result of lavish campaign contributions from pro-tariff business interests in the crucial states of New York and Indiana.
Winning a second term
Cleveland spent the four years of the Harrison presidency in New York City, working for a prominent law firm. When the Republican-dominated Congress and the Harrison administration enacted the very high McKinley Tariff in 1890 and made the surplus in the treasury vanish in a massive spending spree, the path to a Democratic victory in 1892 seemed clear. Cleveland won his party’s nomination for the third consecutive time and then soundly defeated Harrison and Populist Party candidate James B. Weaver by 277 electoral votes to Harrison’s 145, making Cleveland the only president ever elected to discontinuous terms.
Early in Cleveland’s second term the United States sank into the most severe economic depression the country had yet experienced. Cleveland believed that the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890—which required the secretary of the treasury to purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver each month—had eroded confidence in the stability of the currency and was thus at the root of the nation’s economic troubles. He called Congress into special session and, over considerable opposition from Southern and Western members of his own party, forced the repeal of the act. Yet the depression only worsened, and Cleveland’s negative view of government began to diminish his popularity. Apart from assuring a sound—i.e., gold-backed—currency, he insisted the government could do nothing to alleviate the suffering of the many thousands of people who had lost jobs, homes, and farms. His popularity sank even lower when—distraught over the diminishing quantity of gold in the treasury—he negotiated with a syndicate of bankers headed by John Pierpont Morgan to sell government bonds abroad for gold. The deal succeeded in replenishing the government’s gold supply, but the alliance between the president and one of the era’s leading “robber barons” intensified the feeling that Cleveland had lost touch with ordinary Americans.
That the president cared more about the interests of big business than those of ordinary Americans seemed manifest in Cleveland’s handling of the Pullman Strike in 1894. Cleveland sent federal troops to Chicago to quell violence at George M. Pullman’s railroad car facility, despite the objections of Illinois Gov. John P. Altgeld. The strike was broken within a week, and the president received the plaudits of the business community. However, he had severed whatever support he still had in the ranks of labour.
In foreign policy, Cleveland displayed the same courageous righteousness that characterized much of his domestic policy. He withdrew from the Senate a treaty for the annexation of Hawaii when he learned how the Hawaiian leader, Queen Liliuokalani, had been overthrown in an American-led coup. He also refused to be swept along with popular sentiment for intervention on behalf of Cuban insurgents fighting for independence from Spain. Yet he was not totally immune to the new spirit of American assertiveness on the international stage. By invoking the Monroe Doctrine, for example, he forced Britain to accept arbitration of a boundary dispute between its colony of British Guiana (now Guyana) and neighbouring Venezuela.
At the tumultuous Democratic convention in 1896, the party was divided between supporters of Cleveland and the gold standard and those who wanted a bimetallic standard of gold and silver designed to expand the nation’s money supply. When William Jennings Bryan delivered his impassioned Cross of Gold speech, the delegates not only nominated the little-known Bryan for president but also repudiated Cleveland—the first and only president ever to be so repudiated by his own party.
Cleveland retired to Princeton, New Jersey, where he became active in the affairs of Princeton University as a lecturer in public affairs and as a trustee (1901–08). As the rancour over the gold standard subsided with the return of prosperity, Cleveland regained much of the public admiration he had earlier enjoyed. Never again, however, would the Democratic Party adhere to the pro-business, limited-government views that so dominated his presidency, and Cleveland remains the most conservative Democrat to have occupied the White House since the Civil War.
Cabinet of Pres. Grover Cleveland
The table provides a list of cabinet members in the administration of Pres. Grover Cleveland.
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Grover’s disease: What you need to know
Also called transient acantholytic dermatosis, Grover’s disease typically presents as a rash on the chest and back. Intense itching often accompanies the rash.
Possible treatments include oral medications and topical creams for direct application to the skin. The most effective treatment will vary from person to person, so people with Grover’s disease will need to consult with a doctor to find what works best for them.
What is Grover’s disease?
Grover’s disease usually begins as small itchy red bumps on the back and chest, which may then spread to the upper limbs.
The bumps are usually slightly raised but can feel soft or hard to the touch. Water-filled blisters may appear alongside or inside these bumps.
Most cases of Grover’s disease last for 6–12 months, but some may last longer or come and go over time.
According to some sources, Grover’s disease primarily affects white men aged 50 and above and is less common in women and younger people. It is very rare, with a Swiss study finding only 24 (0.08 percent) examples of Grover’s disease among 30,000 skin biopsies.
For most people with Grover’s disease, the most disruptive symptom is intense itching at the rash location.
Not everyone experiences itching, but for those that do, the itching can become so severe that it interferes with daily activities and sleep quality.
Speaking to Medical News Today, Dr. Adam Friedman, an associate professor of dermatology at the George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, stated, «Both the itch and the clinical appearance can have a tremendous impact on quality of life and be quite disabling.»
Scratching the itch also worsens the problem by damaging the skin and making it prone to bleeding and infection.
Causes and risk factors
Grover’s disease occurs as a result of changes to the proteins that help to hold the skin cells together.
These changes occur at a microscopic level and cause partial breakdown of the skin. For some people, this breakdown results in Grover’s disease.
While the exact cause remains unclear, there are many possible triggers, including:
- increased sweating
- prolonged bed rest, for example during hospital stays
- extended periods of sun exposure
- dry skin, especially during the winter months
- certain medications
- organ transplants
- end-stage renal (kidney) disease and hemodialysis
- exposure to radiation, such as X-rays
Cancer, chemotherapy, and recent organ transplants can increase the risk of developing abnormal forms of Grover’s disease. In these cases, the rash may appear in an unusual location on the body after beginning on the back or chest.
Doctors tend to keep all risk factors in mind, rather than focusing on any one trigger. Dr. Friedman told MNT that Grover’s disease is likely due to a combination of elements, «including sun exposure, age, and skin care habits.»
Is it contagious?
Grover’s disease is not contagious, even when another person comes into contact with the rash.
The only way to confidently diagnose Grover’s disease is to do a skin biopsy. A biopsy is a tissue sample that a doctor sends to a laboratory for testing.
Dermatologists typically use a shave skin biopsy. They will numb the area of skin, so the individual does not feel any pain, then use a razor-like tool to cut a sample from one of the rash bumps.
There is a small chance that a biopsy will leave a scar. To minimize that chance, a person should follow the doctor’s post-procedure instructions.
Sometimes people may confuse Grover’s disease with other conditions, including:
- Darier disease: Unlike Grover’s disease, Darier disease usually appears during or just after puberty (before age 30) and is hereditary.
- Hailey-Hailey disease: This disease involves blisters and crusted skin bumps, but is genetic.
- Pemphigus foliaceus: This is an autoimmune condition. Doctors can use immunofluorescence, a staining technique that can identify pemphigus foliaceus under a microscope, to distinguish it from Grover’s disease.
- Galli-Galli disease: This condition involves a rash that looks similar to Grover’s disease, but it is hereditary.
In addition to the biopsy, a doctor is likely to ask about any family history of skin conditions to help them make the correct diagnosis.
There is no standard treatment plan for Grover’s disease, but dermatologists and other experts have developed several lines of treatment that can help reduce symptoms.
Doctors will begin treating Grover’s disease using the first line of treatment and move onto the second or third line if symptoms do not improve.
- moisturizers, including lotions, balms, and gels
- over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription anti-itch corticosteroid cream
- oral antihistamines, which are available OTC in many forms
- topical vitamin D analogs in a liquid or cream for topical application
- antifungal or antibiotic therapy
- oral or injectable systemic corticosteroids, which require a prescription (oral prednisone is very common)
- oral or topical systemic retinoids, which also need a prescription
- PUVA phototherapy, which uses ultraviolet light to provide relief but can sometimes make the disease worse initially
Dr. Friedman suggests combining different treatments to get symptoms under control.
«Aggressive treatment, especially in severe cases, is needed to provide relief,» he told us. «I frequently use oral retinoids, a form of vitamin A, to treat moderate to severe cases, along with potent topical steroids and antibacterial washes.»
Since heat and sweating may trigger Grover’s disease, doctors recommend that people who may be at risk avoid places or activities that could cause the body to heat up excessively or produce sweat.
This could include wearing moisture-wicking clothing or avoiding intense sun exposure.
Grover’s disease is not always preventable, so it is best to see a doctor as soon as any symptoms appear. Prompt diagnosis can help prevent symptoms from impacting on a person’s quality of life.
A Grover’s disease rash and the itching that accompanies it can lower a person’s quality of life. The good news is that the disease is not life-threatening and usually goes away in 6–12 months.
Dermatologists can help people to manage the condition and control their symptoms.
Grover Underwood is a fictional character in Rick Riordan’s Percy Jackson and the Olympians series. He is a satyr, a mythological Greek being that is half goat and half human. He has the upper body of a human and the legs and horns of a goat. He uses fake feet when he wants to look like a human. His horns are usually hidden by his curly brown hair (although they do eventually grow too tall for him to hide them) and sometimes an orange rasta cap. Although he is 21 years old, he is like a sixteen year-old human because satyrs age half as fast as humans do.
Grover is the best friend of Percy Jackson. He is also a satyr, which means that he is half human (top) and half goat (bottom). He has an empathy link with him. This means if one of them dies, the other will probably die, too (or that they will be left forever in a vegetative state, where they are asleep and never wake up).
Grover gets afraid easily. When this happens, his eyes turn into slits like a goat’s. He starts eating furniture and tin cans . He always tries to defend his friends. He is very loyal. Grover also can deal with dangerous situations well. An example would be when he was kidnapped by Polyphemus the Cyclops. He likes enchiladas. He is afraid of rabbits (which Thalia calls his «bunny phobia»)
Grover loves nature very much and hates pollution because he is a satyr. He secretly loves Artemis, the goddess of the hunt. He says, «She’s so. into nature.» He also likes to be near the Hunters of Artemis. Grover’s girlfriend is a nymph named Juniper. They are first seen together in The Battle of the Labyrinth. He helps out animals. He can also talk to them. Grover likes to look for Pan, the god of the wild. He is also afraid of cyclopes.
The Lightning Thief Edit
Grover the satyr and a keeper, goes undercover at Yancy Academy as a disabled student in order to discover if there are any half-bloods who attend it because most half-bloods have AD-HD and dyslexia and can do special things. There he discovers Percy Jackson, a half-blood, and alerts Mr. Brunner the Latin teacher, who turns out to be Chiron, Camp Half-Blood’s activities director. Grover reveals his satyr form to Percy when the Jacksons go to a beach house in Montauk, New York before they are attacked by a minotaur. He accompanies Percy along with Annabeth Chase, Athena’s daughter, on a quest to the Underworld to retrieve Zeus’s stolen Master Lightning Bolt. At the end of the book Grover gets his searchers license to go look for Pan, the god of the Wild. 
The Sea of Monsters Edit
In The Sea of Monsters, Grover is searching for the lost god Pan, god of the Wild, when he is captured by Polyphemus the Cyclops. Grover is trapped in a bridal boutique, mistaken for a female Cyclops and is taken to Polyphemus’s lair in the Sea of Monsters, where he creates the empathy link between him and Percy. In his dreams, Percy sees how Grover is trapped by Polyphemus, the blind cyclops that once held Odysseus captive, and is about to meet the same gruesome ending as all satyrs before him, including his father, who went searching for Pan. Along with Annabeth and Percy’s half brother Tyson, Percy journeys on an unapproved quest to find Grover. At the end, the Golden Fleece (a powerful healing item) releases Thalia’s spirit from the pine tree that kept it. 
The Titan’s Curse Edit
Grover is undercover once again, this time at a military school, where he discovers two children, Nico and Bianca di Angelo, that he suspects are half-bloods. In the excitement of his discovery, Grover asks Percy to come and help him safely bring the half-bloods to camp half-blood. In the process of trying to get to the di Angelos, a manticore (Dr. Thorn) attempts kidnaps Percy, Bianca, and Nico, only to lose them to Thalia, Annabeth, and Grover. As they battle Dr. Thorn, the Hunters of Artemis step in and rid of the monster by making him trip off a cliff, which led to the loss of Annabeth, her being on Thorn’s back. Artemis leaves her Hunters to be escorted to Camp Half-Blood by Percy, Grover, and Thalia. Artemis is then kidnapped, which means that a quest must be launched to save her. That quest consists of Grover, Bianca (who is a new Hunter of Artemis), Zoe Nightshade (The chief Hunter of Artemis), Thalia, and Percy, who journey across the country to Mt. Tampalais. On the way, Grover is involved in several situations where Pan, god of the Wild, speaks to him. The first was in Cloudcroft, New Mexico, where the presence of Pan made the birds on Grover’s coffee cup and a rubber rat come to life, also bringing a giant wild boar to help Percy, Thalia, him, Bianca and Zoe escape the skeletal army. The second incident happened when Grover was alone. Pan spoke to him, saying, «I await you.» Both times, Grover was drinking coffee, so he and the other satyrs believe, that this had something to do with Pan’s appearance. 
The Battle of the Labyrinth Edit
It is in this book that we meet Juniper, Grover’s nymph girlfriend, who is sobbing hysterically as The Council of Cloven Elders’ decide that Grover has been searching far too long for the god Pan — they give him a week to find Pan, and if he does not, his searcher’s license will be revoked. He, Percy, Annabeth and Tyson head into the Labyrinth this time to find its creator, Daedalus, and his workshop. Sometime in the book, Grover and Tyson split up from Percy and Annabeth. However, Grover meets a monster. Later, Grover finds Pan and learns the truth about his disappearance and that he, the God of Wild Things, must fade away and leave the job of making the earth green again to Grover, Annabeth, Percy, Tyson and everyone else on the planet. Grover unleashes the cry of Panic, greatly disrupting the Battle, and distracting the enemy long enough for the campers to surge and eventually drive them back into the Labyrinth. 
The Last Olympian Edit
Grover has been missing for 2 months; Percy and Nico decide to look for him on their way to the Underworld. Percy locates Grover through his empathy link in Central Park and finds him under a giant elm tree. Percy wakes him up by yelling, (via empathy link) «FOOD, PANCAKES!». He tells them he just took a nap and they figure out that Morpheus, the god of dreams, put Grover to sleep. In that way, Grover gives Percy and Nico info that some minor gods are on Kronos’ side. He helps Nico and Percy get into the Underworld by playing his reed pipes to open up an entrance in Central Park.
After, his exile is ended and he is given a position in the Council of Cloven Elders. Grover is then appointed as the new Lord of the Wild, causing him to collapse with joy on the spot.